stiff - large gm, voilent roll, short duration of roll,
tender - comparatively low gm, smooth roll,
brendon & kamlesh
i. Panting stresses is an in and out motion of the plating in the bows of a ship and is caused by unequal water pressure as the bow passes through successive waves.
ii. Pounding stresses is exist when ships is pitching. Ship’s bows lift clear of the water and come down heavily. It causes damage to the bottom and girder at the bow.