BY A FIXED OBJECT OR A SHARP BEND
if the cpa matters , and collision cant be avoided by the give way vsl alone then i will alter other wise , maintain co and speed.
take the series of brg if risk of collision does not exist the maintain co and speed if roc exist the i will give five sort and rapid blast, check nav lights, inform master,inform engine room,put helms men and still she is not taking an action then one short blasta/co to stbd if depth available or reduce speed
bounding the observer field of vision at sea
using instruments like sextant..with some simple navigational calculations...
raster chart is the photo copy of the paper chart,vector chart is electronic form of chart
ATMOSPHRIC PRESSURE DECRSIN
Tropical Revolving Storms which forms in Tropical regions. Northern hemisphere it moves towards north and vice versa in Southern hemisphere.
ERROR OF PERPENDICULARITY
in addition there are some non-adjustable erroes
graduation error,shade error,optical error, prismatic error,telescopic error
Sextant Errors are of 2 Types:
1) Adjustable error,
2) Non Adjustable errors
a)error of perpendicularity,
d)Error of collimination
2)Non adjustable Errors: