2ND MATE EXAM ORAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS BY CAPT-CHANDRA - LATEST QUESTIONS
A wing generates lift, in part, due to the difference in air pressure gradients on the wing surfaces: both upper and lower. During normal flight, the upper wing surface experiences reduced static air pressure and the lower surface comparatively higher static pressure. In normal flight, these air pressure differences also accelerate the mass of air downwards balancing momentum. However kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity so designers aim to minimize the accelerated air velocities to reduce wasted energy in both the downward mass acceleration and wingtip vortices. Flying close to a surface increases air pressure on the lower wing surface (the ram or cushion effect) and decreases air acceleration so the ground effect improves the aircraft lift to drag ratios in two ways. Momentum is still balanced because the air pressure beneath the wing is pressing on the underlying surface—the water or flat land.
In case of personnel in working in the cargo hold, pls evacuate immediately after hearing the audible alarm n report to the designated mustr station.
close the ventialtion to the hold
close the hatches
release the CO2
DNT TAKE ANY ACTION.JUST AVOID COLLISION
AFTER 45 SECS EMGCY GEN STARTS
Q. 4) What is pssa ? exampleX
Particularly Sensitive Sea Area
(PSSA) is an area that needs
special protection through action
by IMO because of its
significance for recognized
ecological or socio-economic or
scientific reasons and which may
be vulnerable to damage by
international maritime activities.
The criteria for the identification
of particularly sensitive sea areas
and the criteria for the
designation of special areas are
not mutually exclusive. In many
cases a Particularly Sensitive Sea
Area may be identified within a
Special Area and vice versa.
ECDIS stand electronic chart display and information system. It is updated with the help of a CD.
An ECDIS is a unified navigational information display which presents on an updated chart background,updated route,present position and fast track, combining these as approprite with radar,ARPA and other navigational sensors in order to improve safe navigational through the clear display of the situation in the vicinity of the ship.
chart can be corrected through a floppy disc,compact disc, even directly through the satellite systems. The latest system of updating charts is that the manufacturer transmit the chart updated as broadcast in coded format. Dedicated software is fitted in the ECDIS which will receive these updates,decode them and correct the charts.
Ventilation for coal cargo is done using the surface ventilation procedure....
Precaution for loading coal refer erol fernandes cargo work pg no.47
the first five day after loading all ventilators shuld be utilized for remove the gas
1> a gun or other explosive fired
2>a cont sounding of fog signal
3>rockets or shells
4> n.c. flag
7> ball, square ,ball
8> flames, smoke signal, raising lowering of arms
example of SECA are north sea,baltic sea,north american waters.
and united nation carribean region
The Change in ships trim when being at motion or being stationary is called squat. The Squat is mainly experienced over in shallow waters it increases with square of the speed of the ship in order to reduce squat ship speed has to be reduced squat is calculated by the formulae
Squat is a bodily sinkage of a ship due to its movement through the water and is depend on speed, ship form, and the underwater clearance.
The overall decrease in the underkeel clearance fwd. and aft is called squat.
TO ELIMINATE SQUAT;
Sufficiant UKC is to be kept to avoid SQUAT.