the first five day after loading all ventilators shuld be utilized for remove the gas
Ventilation for coal cargo is done using the surface ventilation procedure....
Precaution for loading coal refer erol fernandes cargo work pg no.47
A wing generates lift, in part, due to the difference in air pressure gradients on the wing surfaces: both upper and lower. During normal flight, the upper wing surface experiences reduced static air pressure and the lower surface comparatively higher static pressure. In normal flight, these air pressure differences also accelerate the mass of air downwards balancing momentum. However kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity so designers aim to minimize the accelerated air velocities to reduce wasted energy in both the downward mass acceleration and wingtip vortices. Flying close to a surface increases air pressure on the lower wing surface (the ram or cushion effect) and decreases air acceleration so the ground effect improves the aircraft lift to drag ratios in two ways. Momentum is still balanced because the air pressure beneath the wing is pressing on the underlying surface—the water or flat land.
Phasing is a method used in echo sounder to determine depth of the sea bottom. In this method the speed of the stylus is kept constant and the range scale is changed from 0-100 mtrs , 100-200 mtrs , 200-300 mtrs and so on. It is important that the echo sounder range changed and regularly checked.
Ranging is technique were the scale of the echo sounder is kept constant and the stylus is varied according to the depth scale chose. E.g.- 0-100, 0-200, 0-300 mtrs ans so on
PHASING:phasing is a method in echo sounder to determine the depth of water where the speed of stylus changed but scale is constant
type approved by admin.
test results laid n ispp cert.
shal nt produce visible float nor discoloration of surrounding water.
1> a gun or other explosive fired
2>a cont sounding of fog signal
3>rockets or shells
4> n.c. flag
7> ball, square ,ball
8> flames, smoke signal, raising lowering of arms
particularly sensitive sea area
greatbarrier reef, australia
Particularly Sensitive Sea Area
(PSSA) is an area that needs
special protection through action
by IMO because of its
significance for recognized
ecological or socio-economic or
scientific reasons and which may
be vulnerable to damage by
international maritime activities.
The criteria for the identification
of particularly sensitive sea areas
and the criteria for the
designation of special areas are
not mutually exclusive. In many
cases a Particularly Sensitive Sea
Area may be identified within a
Special Area and vice versa.
Rule no:18 says clearly that it does not apply in TSS,NARROW CHANNEL,OVER TAKING.I'll alert him with 5 rapid and short blast and if further Risk of collision exist I'll take action as per Rule 2&8
cbd means her draft is restricted by the available depth and width of the nav. water.she cant alter the co she is following. so, reduce speed,call the other vsl on vhf,inform master,inform vts
OSC - On scene Coordinator
MRCC - Maritime Rescue Coordination Center.
MCC - Mission coordination center
LUT - Local User Terminal
about duties of OSC refer IAMSAR vol3
ECDIS stand electronic chart display and information system. It is updated with the help of a CD.
An ECDIS is a unified navigational information display which presents on an updated chart background,updated route,present position and fast track, combining these as approprite with radar,ARPA and other navigational sensors in order to improve safe navigational through the clear display of the situation in the vicinity of the ship.
chart can be corrected through a floppy disc,compact disc, even directly through the satellite systems. The latest system of updating charts is that the manufacturer transmit the chart updated as broadcast in coded format. Dedicated software is fitted in the ECDIS which will receive these updates,decode them and correct the charts.